Ancient tradition has it that Rome was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus in the mid-eighth century BCE, a dating supported by archaeological evidence of early settlements found on the Palatine Hill. Romulus became Rome's first king, establishing a monarchic form of government that lasted until 509 BCE when the Senate abolished monarchic rule and established a republic. In 44 BCE, Julius Caesar, who had declared himself Rome's dictator, was murdered and in 27 BCE his great-nephew and adopted son, Octavian, became Rome's first emperor, taking on the name Caesar Augustus. The Roman Empire eventually grew to become one of the largest and most powerful of the ancient era, and in fact so huge that in the third century CE Diocletian was forced to set up a tetradic ruling system to ensure its proper administration.
   Constantine the Great, who ascended the imperial throne in 324, did away with Diocletian's tetradic form of government, declared himself sole ruler, and moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople (now Istanbul), splitting the empire into two. With the Edict of Milan (313) he granted Christians the freedom to worship openly and soon after he built Old St. Peter's to mark the saint's tomb, with this establishing Rome as the center of Christendom. In 321, he gave the Church the right to own and sell property, and donated to Pope Sylvester I the Lateran Palace in Rome. Soon landowners began granting their properties to the papacy, most in the vicinity of Rome, though some of the lands were as far south as Sicily. In 754-756, the Frankish King Pepin reaffirmed the Church's ownership of the Roman duchy and made further land donations to the papacy in the Umbrian, Emilia-Romagna, Marche, and Campania regions of Italy. In 781, and again in 787, Pepin's son, Charlemagne, reconfirmed the papacy's ownership of the territories his father had endowed to the papacy, and gave the Church added lands in Umbria, Emilia-Romagna, Marche, Campania, Tuscany, Lazio, and Calabria. The Papal States were extended further when in 1115 Countess Matilda of Tuscany be-queathed to the pope her domain in the Marche region. With these donations, the papacy became the largest landowner on the Italian peninsula, dominating most of the Tyrrhenian coast to the west, and a large portion of the Adriatic coast to the east.
   For most of the medieval era, Rome was plagued with strife among the great feudal families, especially the Colonna and Orsini, and the power struggle between the papacy and the Holy Roman emperors. Though Giotto, Pietro Cavallini, and Jacopo Torriti had been active in the region, it was not until the papacy could be ensured a permanent seat in Rome that the city became a major player in the development of the Renaissance. Martin V, who returned the papacy to Rome in 1420 after the Great Schism, initiated the restoration of pilgrimage sites, such as the Church of St. John Lateran, to lure pilgrims to the area and encourage economic growth. He commissioned Masolino, Gentile da Fabriano, and Antonio Pisanello to provide works to embellish these sites. Other popes followed suit, but it was not until the reign of Nicholas V that Rome was systematically improved under the direction of Leon Battista Alberti. By the 16th century, Rome had become a major center of art, thanks to the presence of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante and, by the 17th century it was the capital of the art world, a position it held until the dawn of the 18th century, when France took the lead.
   See also Sack of Rome.

Historical dictionary of Renaissance art. . 2008.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rome — • The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Rome     Rome     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • ROME — ROME, capital of Italy. The Classical Period THE MIDDLE AND LATE REPUBLIC The earliest record of contact between Jews and the Roman Republic is the embassy sent by judah the Maccabee to Rome, headed by Eupolemos ben Joḥanan, and Jason ben Eleazar …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ROME — Jusqu’au XIXe siècle, Rome fut un des principaux foyers d’art de l’Europe (pour la Rome antique, cf. ROME ET EMPIRE ROMAIN L’art). En instituant, en 1666, l’Académie de France à Rome, Colbert ne fit que sanctionner au profit des «pensionnaires»… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Rome — ist die englische und französische Schreibweise für die italienische Hauptstadt Rom ein ehemaliges französisches Département mit Sitz in Rom, siehe Rome (Département) eine alte Schreibweise für den Ort Rom (heute Ortsteil von Morsbach) der Name… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rome — Rome, WI U.S. Census Designated Place in Wisconsin Population (2000): 574 Housing Units (2000): 236 Land area (2000): 3.938590 sq. miles (10.200900 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.205016 sq. miles (0.530989 sq. km) Total area (2000): 4.143606 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • ROME —     ROME, COUR DE ROME ROME, COUR DE ROME.     L évêque de Rome, avant Constantin, n était aux yeux des magistrats romains, ignorants de notre sainte religion, que le chef d une faction secrète, souvent toléré par le gouvernement, et quelquefois… …   Dictionnaire philosophique de Voltaire

  • Rome I — Regulation (593/2008/EC) Published on 04 Jul 2008 European Union REGULATION (EC) No 593/2008 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations (Rome I) …   Law dictionary

  • Rome II — European Union, United Kingdom The Rome regulation on the law applicable to non contractual obligations (Rome II) ( …   Law dictionary

  • Rome — O.E., from O.Fr. Rome, from L. Roma, of uncertain origin. The original Roma quadrata was the fortified enclosure on the Palatine hill, according to Tucker, who finds no probability in derivation from *sreu flow, and suggests the name is most… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Rome —    Rome s political decline began with the establishment of Constantinople (q.v.), referred to as New Rome, in 324. The Visigoths (q.v.) pillaged Rome in 410, as did the Vandals (q.v.) in 455. It changed hands during Justinian I s war against the …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Rome — ☆ Rome1 n. [after Rome Township, S Ohio, where first grown] a somewhat tart, red winter apple: in full Rome Beauty or Rome Rome2 [rōm] [L Roma, of Etr orig.] capital of Italy, on the Tiber River: formerly, the capital of the Roman Republic, the… …   English World dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”